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Discussion Starter #1 (Edited)
Thought I'd post some pics and explanation of the 5-3/4" round, incandescent headlight on the 2016-17 model year Vegas bike (and maybe some other steel frame cruisers); even the service manual completely omits any mention or pictures of this headlight or the connectors in it.

First, the construction: The headlight element is held in place by a set screw and the trim ring on the headlight. Inside is the most complex H4 headlight housing I've ever seen. The housing/shell is a clamshell of reflector and lens held in place in the bucket by a thick, black rubber gasket ringing the entire shell. On it's back is a o-ring sealed cap through which only the connector of the H4 sticks; the entirety of the bulb is inside the house (even the keyed base). There's also a "catcher's mitt" shield behind the housing (between it and the wiring in the housing) pictured on the back of the housing in the attached pics. It's sandwiched between the housing and the bucket by the mounting pressure of the trim ring.

To get the bulb out, you have to unscrew the sealed cap and push the bulb out the front of that cap. Yes, the bulb get's pushed into (and out of) the side of the cap that ends up being inside the housing; the bulb's base ends up inside the housing...bizarre.

Anyway, there's no dust cover (likely due to the cap's design) but there are plenty of other challenges in fitting an LED (or HID) element. First, the neck of any replacement element would have to be the exact standard dimensions (length and diameter) of the cylinder behind the base (where the connector lives) of a standard H4. The heat sink cannot be mounted super close to the base...1/2" distance looks to be about the minimum (which is a problem for a lot of LED elements). The way the element gets pushed into the cap also means you have to use an LED that has a removable base; I see no way around that.

If you manage to get an LED in there, you still have to deal with the catcher's mitt wiring shield. Nobody's LED heat sink is fitting in that ~32mm hole; so, it looks like you'd have to remove the shield or modify it to cut a bigger hole for the heat sink...some LEDs may require removing only the majority of the bit that sticks out (right under the tape measure in the pic [so that most of the cage remains and we retain most of its strength]). I believe you'd need at least the outermost ring (or material of similar thickness) to sandwich between the headlight bucket and the headlight shell. The shield can be replaced under $20.

If you want to replace the whole 5-3/4" shell with an LED (or other) universal fit light, you'll probably have to modify that thick rubber gasket. Most aftermarket headlights' outer rims appear to be at least twice the thickness of the Victory piece. You'll have to modify quite a bit, and this piece costs a bit more to replace than the catcher's mitt.

On to the interesting wiring in the first reply.
 

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Discussion Starter #2 (Edited)
There was some unexpected wiring in the headlight that wasn't on the most recent service manual I had prior to getting the 13-17 manual, an 08 service manual for steel frame cruisers. There is no truly accurate wiring diagram for the 16/17 bikes. They don't have an LED or HID headlight or ABS; so, none of diagrams are technically accurate (although the LED headlight [w/o ABS] diagram has all the right content). Whatever, right? Use the LED diagram.

Stuff that's clear from the diagram and experience (circled in black):
  • H7 connectors for high/low beam on another bike
  • an H4 connector for this bike
  • The Euro running light connector
Stuff that was unexpected:
  • Orange: An uncapped "accessory" connector (on the headlights circuit)...no idea what type of connector this is (edit: this is apparently a Delphi/Aptiv 150 series unsealed connector available on mouser, mfg #12059250)
  • Red: Properly capped connector for right handgrip cruise control module (on another bike)
  • Purple: open female bullet connectors running ground and 5Vdc (for an ambient air temp sensor on another bike).
Why is an ambient air temp sensor (for fairing bikes with a temp display?) connected to an unsealed, generic connector usually reserved for accessory connections? I don't know; it's bizarre.

Stuff not clearly pictured:
Two square cross-section female .250" spade connectors labeled "hand warmers" that are tied into the secondary lights (turn/horn) circuit. These seem like the logical first choice for powering switched accessories at the front of the bike (without running new wire): The circuit is for non-essential lighting, and, if you swap all your bulbs to LED, won't have much load on it. The actual accessory connector (noted above as circled in orange), however, is on the headlight circuit which is essential.

Other accessory power considerations:
The following connectors are electronically equivalent: H7 low beam, front position light, accessory, HID balast power (which must be under the seat b/c I don't see it in the headlight). They are all two pins tied into the headlight splice. Even though some or all of these are weatherproof connectors, I still think it best to connect switched accessories to the hand warmer connectors (since they are on a non-essential circuit).

The low beam on the H4 connector is not powered directly from the headlight splice; it is the only thing run from pin 2 (called accessory power on the diagram) on the headlight control switch. Now, the headlight switch is powered by the headlight splice, but that means all power for the H4 low beam runs through the headlight switch (and surely means it's off when the high beam is on). Anyway, point being that, if you want to extend switch life, increase power to your low beam, or both, it's probably be good to run the low beam via a relay triggered by the H4 low beam lead (but powered straight from the headlight splice or an add-on circuit).

Anyone know why the diagram shows a separate Accessory fuse? I think this sucker is actually lashed to the frame under the right side cover but external to the main fuse box. This makes no sense to me, and I can't make sense of where this power gets routed.
 

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